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【安妮博林是被冤枉的】安妮·博林:生平故事和写给国王的绝笔信

时间:2019-03-17来源:有气无力网 -[收藏本文]

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Anne Boleyn was born in England, in 1504, the daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn, and Elizabeth Howard, who was the daughter of the Duke of Norfolk. She spent much of her childhood at the French court, after which she returned to England in 1522.
At this time, Henry VIII, King of England was married to Catherine of Aragon of Spain, who was the still-virginal wife of his deceased older brother Arthur. Henry was a unique person, possessing a strong personality and high intellect. He loved to dance, and enjoyed archery and hunting, and had an interest in religion, but his passions were eating, gambling and women, and throughout his life, he continued to be unfaithful. His first wife Catherine had failed to provide him with the male heir he needed to assure the continuance of the Tudor Dynasty. All of their children died in infancy except a daughter, Mary.
In 1527, he met Anne Boleyn, a well-educated and quite tantalizing woman of 23. However, Anne had witnessed the king use her sister Mary for sexual favors, then discard her. Consequently, she was determined that should she yield to Henry, the price for her sexual favors would only be if he married her.
Infatuated with Anne, Henry now had to find a reason to get rid of Catherine. When English policies found France more important than Spain, which was her country, Henry decided to seek an annulment on the grounds of incest. He got what he wanted, and the annulment was granted, however only after a separation with the Church of Rome, an action that brought about the English Reformation.
Now free to pursue Anne, Henry did so and won her affections in August 1532, only because she was now sure he would marry her. By January 1533, Anne was pregnant with Henry’s child, so a secret wedding was arranged for January 25, in spite of the fact that Henry was still not formally divorced from Catherine. That June 1533, Anne was crowned queen.
In a short time, their marriage displayed signs of trouble, for two reasons. The first was that Henry had been unfaithful to his first wife, and saw no reason to stop this behavior once he married Anne. Secondly, Anne was a strong-willed person, unlike the submissive Catherine, and voiced her objections to his carrying on with other women. Anne’s downfall began on August 7, 1533, upon giving birth to their first child, a daughter, the future Elizabeth I. This did not please Henry who so desperately needed a son. In future attempts, Anne had three miscarriages, and the king was growing tired of her. Her only hope 哪个医院专治癫痫病呢to revive their marriage would be in producing a son.
During the summer of 1535, while staying as guest’s of the Seymour family, Anne’s nemesis arrived in Jane Seymour, who had been one of Anne’s maids of honor. Jane caught Henry’s eye, but she like Anne, would not submit sexually until an offer of marriage was made. Anne, now pregnant again, gave birth to a stillborn male baby in January 1536. With this, her hopes of remaining married to Henry diminished.
Henry VIII now was sure he had to free himself from Anne, so that he could marry Jane, in the hope of producing a son. To get this accomplished, the king instructed Thomas Cromwell1 to devise a way to have her executed. Cromwell came up with a plan that charged Anne with witchcraft, and tacked on adultery, accusing her of having sex with five men in the household, all charges that were false and trumped up.2 The only evidence gathered against her was provided by a musician, whose testimony was elicited under torture.
Anne was arrested and taken to the Tower of London, where she was imprisoned awaiting trial. In May 1536, at the same time that Archbishop Thomas Cranmer was annulling her marriage to Henry, she was tried by twenty-six nobles. But, these nobles had been intimidated, and threatened with their own lives, should they not deliver a sentence desirable to the king. Anne was found guilty and her punishment was to be put to death. Her harsh sentence was pronounced by her own uncle, the Duke of Norfolk.
To further enhance Cromwell’s and the king’s trumped up plans, the five so-called lovers from the household were beheaded on May 17, 1536. Soon, it would be Anne’s turn, but not before Henry called upon a master headsman from France, to ensure that his sword would cut off her head in one stroke. It is said that Henry had pity on her and wanted to ensure she did not suffer in the beheading, but rather it may be more true that he wanted to ensure her swift death for his own selfish reasons. Originally scheduled for May 18, her execution was postponed one day until this headsman arrived.
May 19 came with Anne still protesting her innocence. As she was preparing to leave the Tower, she was still wearing a gold pendant, her first gift from the king. In making her way to the block, she gave the pendant to Captain Gwynne of the Tower Guard. Legend says that as Anne was walking toward her fate, she kept looking back as though she would be rescued at any moment by the king’s equestrians. Her innocence ignored, she was beheaded and died this day, 1536.
As she sat in the Tower awaiting her fate, she wrote her last letter to the king, protesting her innocence while reaffirming her continued devotion to him, as well as a plea to spare the lives of the five men, who 癫痫病药物能治好吗were accused of having adultery with her.
So here are Anne’s final words, believed to be written on or about May 15, 1536.
Sir; If, as you say, confessing a Truth indeed may procure my safety, I shall with all Willingness and Duty perform your Command. But let not your Grace ever imagine that your poor Wife will ever be brought to acknowledge a Fault, where not so much as a Thought thereof proceeded. And to speak a truth, never Prince had Wife more Loyal in all Duty, and in all true Affection, than you have ever found in Anne Boleyn. Neither did I at any time so far forget myself in my received Queenship, but that I always looked for such an Alteration as now I find; for the ground of my Preferment being on no surer Foundation than your Grace’s Fancy, the least Alteration, I knew, was fit and sufficient to draw that Fancy to some other Subject.
Try me good King, but let me have a Lawful Trial, and let not my sworn Enemies sit as my Accusers and Judges; yea, let me receive an open Trial, for my Truth shall fear no open shame; then shall you see, either mine Innocency cleared, your Suspicion and Conscience satisfied, the Ignominy and Slander of the World stopped, or my Guilt openly declared. So that whatsoever God or you may determine of me, your Grace may be freed from an open Censure to follow your Affection already settled on that Party, for whose sake I am now as I am.
But if you have already determined of me, and that not only my Death, but an infamous Slander must bring you the enjoying of your desired Happiness; then I desire of God, that he will pardon your great Sin therein; and likewise mine Enemies, the Instruments thereof; and that he will not call you to a strict Account for your unprincely and cruel usage of me, at his General Judgement-Seat, where both you and my self must shortly appear, and in whose Judgement, I doubt not (whatsover the World may think of me) mine Innocence shall be openly known, and sufficiently cleared.
When the king’s marriage to Catherine was annulled, the king was the head of the Church of England. In 1536, after Anne’s execution, Henry’s first wife Catherine died, and the king married Jane Seymour. She died in 1537, but with her they would produce his badly needed son, Edward VI. Henry remarried in 1540 to Anne of Cleves, who became his fourth wife, whom he married in the hope of securing the Protestant involvement of Germany. However, Henry VIII disliked her appearance which caused him to get a divorce within a short time of their marriage. That same year, 1540, Henry married his fifth wife, Catherine Howard, but had her executed two years later on the grounds of infidelity. In 1543, Henry would marry his sixth and last wife, Catherine Parr, who survived him.
Henry VIII癫痫病人的寿命 died in 1547, and was succeeded by his son, Edward VI.


安妮・博林1504年出生于英格兰,是托马斯・博林爵士和伊丽莎白・霍华德的女儿。她的母亲是诺福克公爵的女儿。安妮・博林童年的大部分时间在法国宫廷度过,1522年返回英国。
那时,英国国王亨利八世已与西班牙阿拉贡的凯瑟琳公主结婚,凯瑟琳是亨利八世已故兄长亚瑟的遗孀,但仍是处女。亨利为人与众不同,个性很强,头脑聪明。他喜欢跳舞、弓箭和打猎,对宗教也感兴趣,但是美食、赌博和女人却是他的热情所在。一生之中,他对妻子们连连不忠。第一任妻子凯瑟琳未能诞下亨利所希望的男性继承人以延续都铎王朝。他们的孩子都幼年早夭,除了一个名为玛丽的女儿。
1527年,亨利遇到安妮・博林。安妮受过良好的教育,芳龄23岁,风姿撩人。然而,安妮曾亲眼目睹了她的姐姐玛丽与国王私通,后又遭抛弃。因此,她下定决心万一她不得不委身于亨利,前提是亨利必须得娶她。
亨利被安妮迷得神魂颠倒,当下得找到一个理由摆脱凯瑟琳。当时对于英国的外交政策,法国比西班牙更重要,而凯瑟琳正是来自西班牙。因此亨利决定试图以乱伦罪为名废除婚姻关系。在脱离罗马教会之后,他们的婚姻宣告无效,亨利得偿所愿, 但是脱离罗马教会这一行为导致了英国的宗教改革。
亨利获得自由身,展开追求安妮的行动,1532年8月终获佳人芳心,因为那时安妮已经确定亨利会娶她。1533年1月,安妮已经怀了亨利的骨肉,因此尽管亨利尚未与凯瑟琳正式离婚,二人仍于1月25日秘密举行了婚礼。1533年6月,安妮被加冕为王后。
很快,他们的婚姻出现了问题,原因有二:其一是亨利曾经对他的第一任妻子不忠,在与安妮结婚后,他并没有觉得应该终止这种行为。其二,安妮与顺从的凯瑟琳不同,她意志刚硬,声明自己反对亨利再与其她女人有染。安妮失宠始于1533年8月7日。他们的第一个孩子――一个女儿――降生了。她便是日后的伊丽莎白一世。亨利急切地想要一个男嗣,女儿的出生令他不悦。后来安妮几度怀孕,却三次流产,国王渐萌厌弃之心。安妮挽救婚姻唯一的希望就是生出一个儿子来。
1535年夏天,安妮到西摩家做客,遇到了克星简・西摩。简曾经是安妮的侍从女官。她吸引了亨利的目光,然而她与安妮一样,不愿在没有婚约的前提下委身亨利。当时安妮再次怀孕,1536年1月诞下一名男婴,却是死胎。至此,她对于维系与亨利的婚姻关系也不报什么希望了。
此刻亨利八世已决意要摆脱安妮,这样就可以迎娶简给他生个男嗣。为达目的,国王命令托马斯・克伦威尔设法处死安妮。克伦威尔设计指控安妮使用巫术以及与五名男子在家中通奸。所有指控皆属子虚乌有。唯一不利的证据是一个男乐师在屈打成招后提供的证词。
安妮被捕,审判之前一直被关押在伦敦塔。1536年5月,大主教托马斯・克兰默宣布安妮与亨利的婚姻无效。与此同时,安妮经历了26名贵族的审判。他们受到国王的胁迫,一旦审判结果不和国王之意,则性命堪忧。安妮被判有罪,处以死刑。这一酷刑的宣判者正是她的舅舅,诺福克公爵。
为了使克伦威尔和国王的诬陷大计更加万无一失,五名所谓的情人在1536年5月17日被砍头。很快,安妮的断头之期将近,亨利从法国召来一位熟练的刽子手,以保证一刀就能砍下安妮的头颅。据说亨利对安妮怀有恻隐之心,希望能够确保她在行刑时没有痛苦。不过,更真实的说法也许是他因为一己之私而希望安妮快点死掉。斩首原定于5月18日,但由于等待那名刽子手而推迟了一天。
处决当天,安妮仍然声明自己是清白的。准备离开伦敦塔之际,她仍然戴着一个金项坠,那是亨利送给她的第一件礼物。临上断头台,她把这个项坠交给了伦敦塔守卫格温上尉。传说安妮边走边频频回头,似乎在企盼国王的骑士随时有可能送来赦免令。但她的清白无人理会,1536年5月19日,安妮身首异处,香消玉殒。
被囚伦敦塔等候处决之时,安妮曾写给国王一封绝笔信,信中表明自己的清白,重申自己对亨利一如既往的感情,并请求赦免那五名被指控与她犯有通奸罪的男子们的性命。
安妮下面的这封绝笔信据说写于1536年5月15日或者这日前后。
陛下,如您所说,如果我坦白事实也许可以免我一死,我将会竭我所愿、尽我所责遵照您的命令行事。但是,请陛下不要设想您可怜的妻子会被迫承认虚假之事,因为我从未想过要犯那样的过错。事实上,安妮・博林对国王忠贞不渝、全心全意、一往情深,再无人能及。从未忘记自成为王后以来时刻伴君左右,但从未停止窥探陛下对我之心是否有变,此刻终知君心已变。陛下之爱乃我之根本、我行事之优先;陛下心意的丝毫改变,我明白,无不当之处,但足以使您的爱转向她人。
陛下,审判我吧,但务必公正地审判,不要让我不共戴天的仇敌成为我的控告者和审判者。是的,当众审判我吧,因为我的忠贞不畏公开的羞耻;这样您就会看到,要么我沉冤得雪,您不再猜疑、心中释怀,世人对我的羞辱和诽谤尽数停止,要么我的罪行昭告天下。那样,无论上帝或者陛下您怎样处罚我,您都不会因为追求自己的爱情而受到任何公开的责难。您的爱情已经给了那个人,拜她所赐,我才沦落于此。
但是如果陛下心意已决,那么我的死以及那些无耻诽谤定会给您带来您所希望的欣喜。希望上帝能够宽恕您的罪过;同样我也能宽恕我的敌人和他们所用的卑劣手段;希望上帝不会召您去他的大审判席之下,命您一五一十地讲出对待我低劣而残酷的手段。用不了多久,您和我都将会面临上帝的审判,而我坚信(无论世人怎样看待我)我的清白将公诸于众,大白于天下。
在国王与凯瑟琳的婚姻无效之际,国王成为英国国教之首脑。1536年安妮被处决之后,亨利的第一任妻子凯瑟琳去世,国王迎娶简・西摩。这位新王后1537年就去世了,但是她为亨利生下了他梦寐以求的男嗣,爱德华六世。1540年,亨利迎娶克利夫斯的安妮公主作为他的第四任王后,希望以此拉拢信奉新教的德国。然而,亨利不喜欢安妮的长相,致使婚后不久便离婚。同年,亨利娶了第五位王后凯瑟琳・霍华德,两年之后又以通奸罪处死。1543年,亨利娶了第六位王后,也是最后一位,凯瑟琳・帕尔。这位王后死在了国王之后。
亨利八世1547年去世,他的儿子爱德华六世继位。
1. Thomas Cromwell: 托马斯・克伦威尔(1485―1540),出身平民之家,却成为亨利八世的首席国务大臣,英国近代社会转型时期杰出的政治家,但最终被亨利八世斩首。
2. tack on: 添加; trump up: 捏造。

小儿抗癫痫病药都有什么药

她的故事,和给国王的绝笔信

安妮・博林于 1504 年生于英格兰,是托马斯・博林爵士和伊丽莎白・霍华德的女儿,她的母亲是诺福克公爵的女儿。安妮・博林在法国宫廷度过了童年的大部分时光,于 1522 年返回英国。

当时,英国国王亨利八世已与西班牙阿拉贡的凯瑟琳公主结婚,她是亨利八世已故兄长亚瑟的遗孀,但仍是处女。亨利与众不同、个性很强、智商很高。他喜欢跳舞、射箭和打猎,对宗教也感兴趣,但最热衷于美食、赌博和女人。在他的一生中,一直不忠于他的妻子们。第一任妻子凯瑟琳未能生下亨利所希望的能延续都铎王朝的男性继承人。他们的孩子都夭折了,除了一个名为玛丽的女儿。

1527 年,亨利遇到了安妮・博林,她受过良好的教育,只有 23 岁,年轻撩人。然而,安妮曾亲眼目睹她的姐姐玛丽与国王私通,然后被抛弃。因此,她下定决心如果她不得不向亨利屈服,前提是亨利必须得娶她。 

亨利被安妮迷得神魂颠倒,当下必须找一个理由摆脱凯瑟琳。当时英国的外交政策下,法国比西班牙更重要,而凯瑟琳来自西班牙,因此亨利决定以乱伦罪来废除婚姻关系。亨利得偿所愿,婚姻关系得以废除,但前提是脱离罗马教会,这一行为导致了英国的宗教改革。

亨利获得自由,开始追求安妮,1532 年 8 月终获佳人芳心,因为那时安妮已经确定亨利会娶她。1533 年 1 月,安妮怀了亨利的骨肉,尽管亨利尚未与凯瑟琳正式离婚,他们仍于 1 月 25 日秘密举行了婚礼。1533 年 6 月,安妮加冕为后。

很快,他们的婚姻出现了问题,原因有二:第一是亨利曾对他的第一任妻子不忠,在与安妮结婚后,他不觉得应该停止这种行为。第二,与顺从的凯瑟琳不同,安妮是一个固执的人,声明自己反对亨利与其她女人有染。安妮的失宠始于 1533 年 8 月 7 日,他们的第一个孩子降生,是一个女儿,即日后的伊丽莎白一世。亨利急切地想要一个儿子,女儿的出生令他不悦。后来安妮几次怀孕,却三次流产,国王渐生厌恶之心。安妮挽救婚姻的唯一希望就是生出一个儿子来。

1535 年夏天,安妮到西摩家做客时,遇到了对手简・西摩,她曾是安妮的侍女。简吸引了亨利,然而她与安妮一样,不愿在没有婚约的前提下委身亨利。当时安妮再次怀孕,1536 年 1 月诞下一名胎死的男婴。至此,她不再报希望于维系和亨利的婚姻。

此时,亨利八世已决定要摆脱安妮,这样就可以迎娶简,希望能生个儿子。为达目的,国王命令托马斯・克伦威尔设法处死安妮。克伦威尔设计指控安妮使用巫术并与五名男子在王室通奸,所有指控都是捏造的。唯一不利的证据是一个男乐师在屈打成招后提供的证词。

安妮被捕,被关押在伦敦塔,等待审判。1536 年 5 月,大主教托马斯・克兰默宣布安妮与亨利的婚姻无效,同时她接受了 26 名贵族的审判。但是,这些贵族受到国王的胁迫,一旦审判结果不合国王之意,则性命堪忧。安妮被判有罪,处以死刑。这一酷刑的宣判者正是她的舅舅诺福克公爵。 

为了进一步确保克伦威尔和国王的诬陷计划万无一失,五名所谓的来自王室的情人在 1536 年 5 月 17 日被砍头。很快,安妮将被行刑,但是在亨利从法国召来的一位熟练的刽子手到达之前不会动手,以保证一刀就能砍下安妮的头颅。据说亨利对安妮怀有恻隐之心,希望能够确保她在行刑时没有痛苦,但更真实的说法也许是他因为一己之私而希望安妮快点死掉。行刑原定于 5 月 18 日,但由于等那名刽子手而推迟了一天。

5 月 19 日到来,安妮仍声称自己是清白的。准备离开伦敦塔之际,她仍然戴着一个金项坠,那是亨利送给她的第一件礼物。临上断头台,她把这个项坠交给了伦敦塔守卫格温上尉。传说安妮边走边频频回头,似乎国王的骑士随时可能来救她。但无人理会她的清白,1536 年的这一天,安妮身首异处,香消玉殒。

被囚伦敦塔等候处决之时,安妮给国王写了一封绝笔信,坚决表示自己的清白,重申自己对亨利一如既往的感情,并请求赦免那五名被指控与她通奸的男子们的性命。

下面是安妮的绝笔信,据说写于 1536 年 5 月 15 日或这日前后。 

陛下,如您所说,如果坦白事实可以救我一命,我将竭尽全力遵照您的命令行事。但是,请陛下不要设想您可怜的妻子会被迫承认虚假事实,因为我从未想过要犯那样的错误。事实上,对待国王,无人能比安妮・博林更加忠贞不渝、真心实意。我从未忘记成为王后以来自身的责任,但我从未停止窥探陛下是否变心,现知君心已变。陛下的爱是我行事的根本,我知道,陛下丝毫的改变都是恰当的,但足以使您的爱转向她人。

伟大的陛下,审判我吧,但请公正地审判,不要让我不共戴天的敌人成为我的控告者和审判者。是的,公开审判我吧,因为我的忠贞不畏惧公开的羞耻;这样您就会看到,要么我洗清冤屈,您不再怀疑并释怀于心,世人对我的羞辱和诽谤都会停止,要么我的罪行昭告天下。那样,无论上帝或者陛下您怎样处罚我,您都不会因为追求自己的爱情而受到公开的谴责,您的爱情已经给了那个人,拜她所赐,我才沦落至此。

但是如果陛下心意已决,不仅仅是我的死,还有那些无耻诽谤定会给您带来您所期望的欣喜。那么我恳求上帝能够宽恕您的罪过,并且同样宽恕我的敌人和他们所用的卑劣手段;上帝不会召您去他的大审判席之下讲述您对我使用的低劣而残酷的手段。用不了多久,您和我都将会面临上帝的审判,我坚信(无论世人怎样看待我)我的清白将公诸于众,大白天下。

在国王与凯瑟琳的婚姻废除之时,国王成为英国国教首脑。1536 年,安妮被处决之后,亨利的第一任妻子凯瑟琳去世,国王迎娶了简・西摩。新王后在 1537 年就去世了,但是她为亨利生下了他梦寐以求的儿子,爱德华六世。1540 年,亨利迎娶克利夫斯公主安妮,作为他的第四任妻子,希望以此拉拢信奉新教的德国。然而,亨利八世不喜欢安妮的长相,导致他婚后不久便离婚。同年,亨利娶了第五任妻子凯瑟琳・霍华德,但两年之后又以通奸罪处死。1543 年,亨利娶了第六位,也是最后一位妻子凯瑟琳・帕尔,这位王后死在了国王之后。

亨利八世于 1547 年去世,他的儿子爱德华六世继位。

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